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Cellulase query also showed similarity in blast and formed clade in phylogenetic tree Fig. Both are glycoside hydrolases, which either hydrolyze the beta-1,4 linkages between xylan xylanase or between d-glucosamine residues in a partly acetylated chitosan chitosanase. This is highly indicative of a divergent evolution among these enzymes from a basic protein fold so as to incorporate different substrates.

The sharing of the conserved signature insertions and deletions CSIs observed between N. This CSI of 7 aa insert must have been introduced in the cellulase of their common ancestor. The monophyletic grouping of the species of Caldicellulosiruptor, Caldanaerobacter and Clostridium Supplementary Figs. CSIs observed to be specific to different bacteria phyla including Actinobacteria and Firmicutes Supplementary Table 3 would be important tools for characterization and distinguishing of the members of their common evolutionary decent.

Similarly, evolutionary relationships among cellulases, using CSIs are also known for various species of Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya. Such variations were distributed among the members of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Fibrobacteres, and in some Nematoda and one Arthropoda Psacothea. A cellulolytic and non-hemolytic soil bacterium, Bacillus sp. Therefore, the strain SV1 has potential in the production of complete cellulases in a cheaper medium, and also for prefatory bioremediation of multiple heavy metals and organic solvents applications.

An evolutionary relationship of the cellulase of different species of Bacillus was studied using their protein amino acid sequences. The protein sequence blast of three Bacillus spp. Within the alignment of the reference cellulases for the queries, conserved signature indels were observed for the members of Actinobacteria and Firmicutes, which were in support of their evolutionary decent in phylogenetic trees. Fellowships from C.

Supplementary data associated with this article can be found, in the online version, at doi Microbial cellulases: engineering, production and applications. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. Bioprospecting thermophiles for cellulase production: a review. Braz J Microbiol. Production and characterization of cellulase by Bacillus pumilus EB3. Int J Eng Technol.


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Microbial diversity of cellulose hydrolysis. Curr Opin Microbiol. Genomics of cellulolytic bacteria. Curr Opin Biotechnol. Cellulase production by thermophilic Bacillus sp. SMIA-2 and its detergent compatibility.

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Electron J Biotechnol. Bacillus pumilus SA carboxymethyl cellulase; a thermo stable enzyme with a wide substrate spectrum utility. Int J Biol Macromol. Solvents and solvent effects: an introduction. Org Process Res Dev. Industrial potential of organic solvent tolerant bacteria.

Biotechnol Prog. Cloning of organic solvent tolerance gene ostA that determines n-hexane tolerance level in Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol. J Environ Health Sci Eng. Simultaneous production of alkaline lipase and protease by antibiotic and heavy metal tolerant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Basic Microbiol. Protein phylogenies and signature sequences: a reappraisal of evolutionary relationships among archaebacteria, eubacteria, and eukaryotes.

Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. Conserved signature indels and signature proteins as novel tools for understanding microbial phylogeny and systematics: identification of molecular signatures that are specific for the phytopathogenic genera Dickeya, Pectobacterium and Brenneria. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. Production, optimization, and characterization of organic solvent tolerant cellulases from a lignocellulosic waste-degrading actinobacterium, Promicromonospora sp.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol. Use of Congo red-polysaccharide interactions in enumeration and characterization of cellulolytic bacteria from the bovine rumen. Cr VI reduction by Enterobacter sp. DU17 isolated from the tannery waste dump site and characterization of the bacterium and the Cr VI reductase. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad. Rapid determination of 16S ribosomal RNA sequences for phylogenetic analyses. Introducing EzTaxon-e: a prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene sequence database with phylotypes that represent uncultured species. A simple method for estimating evolutionary rate of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences.

J Mol Evol. Mol Biol Evol. Solvent tolerant marine bacterium Bacillus aquimaris secreting organic solvent stable alkaline cellulase. Optimization of cultural condition and synergistic effect of lactose with carboxymethyl cellulose on cellulase production by Bacillus sp.

Adv Microbiol. Characterization of cellulase-producing bacteria from the digestive tract of tilapia, Oreochromis mossambica Peters and grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella Valenciennes. Aquac Res.

Brazilian Journal of Microbiology

Enhanced carboxymethylcellulase production by a newly isolated marine bacterium Cellulophaga lytica LBH, using wheat bran. J Microbiol Biotechnol. Isolation of cellulose-hydrolytic bacteria and applications of the cellulolytic enzymes for biohydrogen production. Enzyme Microb Technol. Purification and biochemical characterization of a novel thermo-stable carboxymethyl cellulase from Azorean isolate Bacillus mycoides SC. Industrial waste based compost as a source of novel cellulolytic strains and enzymes. Use of dinitrosalicylic acid reagent for determination of reducing sugar.

Anal Chem. Method for measuring cellulase activities. Methods in Enzymology: Cellulose and Hemicellulose. New York: Academic Press; — Direct amplification of new cellulase genes from woodland soil purified DNA. Mol Biol Rep. Cloning of a Cellulase gene from indigenous strain of Bacillus species. Pak J Life Soc Sci. UniProt: a hub for protein information. Nucleic Acids Res. Evolutionary divergence and convergence in proteins. Evolving Genes and Proteins.

The rapid generation of mutation data matrices from protein sequences. Comput Appl Biosci. Isolation and identification of cellulolytic bacteria from the gut of Holotrichia parallela larvae Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae. Int J Mol Sci. Isolation, screening, and optimization of the fermentation conditions of highly cellulolytic bacteria from the hindgut of Holotrichia parallela larvae Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae.

Characterization and identification of cellulolytic bacteria from gut of worker Macrotermes gilvus. Multifarious activities of cellulose degrading bacteria from Koala Phascolarctos cinereus faeces. J Anim Sci Technol. Population, diversity and characteristics of cellulolytic microorganisms from the Indo-Burma Biodiversity hotspot. Molecular mechanisms of ceftazidime resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from canine and human infections.

Vet Med. The elucidation of mechanisms of ceftazidime resistance among clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using genomic data. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. Microorganisms and heavy metal toxicity. Microb Ecol. Exploiting the genetic and biochemical capacities of bacteria for the remediation of heavy metal pollution. Hexavalent chromium reduction by Bacillus sp. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. Metal tolerance and biosorption capacity of Bacillus circulans strain EB1.

Res Microbiol. J Environ Manag. A newly isolated organic solvent tolerant Bacillus sphaericus y producing organic solvent-stable lipase. Biochem Eng J. Isolation of an organic solvent-tolerant bacterium Bacillus licheniformis PAL05 that is able to secrete solvent-stable lipase.

Biotechnol Appl Biochem. A novel organic solvent-stable alkaline protease from organic solvent-tolerant Bacillus licheniformis YP1A. J Mol Catal B: Enzym. Stability studies of protease from Bacillus cereus BG1. Afr J Biotechnol. High-yield cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei ZU on corn cob residue.

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Bioresour Technol. Optimization of cellulase production by Penicillium occitanis. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. Volatile components of a yeast extract composition. J Food Sci. Minor element composition of yeast extract. J Bacteriol. Brewer's spent grain and corn steep liquor as substrates for cellulolytic enzymes production by Streptomyces malaysiensis. Lett Appl Microbiol. Streptomyces drozdowiczii cellulase production using agro-industrial by-products and its potential use in the detergent and textile industries.

Cellulase production on high levels of cellulose and corn steep liquor. Zentralbl Mikrobiol. The biological degradation of cellulose. Studies on cellulase production by a Bacillus subtilis. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. Catabolite repression of polygalacturonase, pectin lyase, and cellulase synthesis in Penicillium expansum. Microbial cellulose utilization: fundamentals and biotechnology. Enhanced cellulase production from Bacillus subtilis by optimizing physical parameters for bioethanol production.

ISRN Biotechnol. Characterization of extracellular cellulose-degrading enzymes from Bacillus thuringiensis strains. Optimization of carboxymethylcellulase production from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SS Isolation, production, purification and characterization of an organic-solvent-thermostable alkalophilic cellulase from Bacillus vallismortis RG BMC Biotechnol. Production of bacterial endoglucanase from pretreated oil palm empty fruit bunch by Bacillus pumilus EB3. J Biosci Bioeng. Animal cellulases with a focus on aquatic invertebrates.

Fish Sci. Evolutionary relationships and taxa-specific conserved signature indels among cellulases of Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. J Comput Biol. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivative License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium provided the original work is properly cited and the work is not changed in any way. Services on Demand Journal. Fungal and Bacterial Physiology Research Paper Inducible cellulase production from an organic solvent tolerant Bacillus sp.

Braz J Microbiol. Production and characterization of cellulase by Bacillus pumilus EB3. Int J Eng Technol. Microbial diversity of cellulose hydrolysis.

Curr Opin Microbiol. Genomics of cellulolytic bacteria. Curr Opin Biotechnol. Cellulase production by thermophilic Bacillus sp.


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SMIA-2 and its detergent compatibility. Electron J Biotechnol. Bacillus pumilus SA carboxymethyl cellulase; a thermo stable enzyme with a wide substrate spectrum utility. Int J Biol Macromol. Solvents and solvent effects: an introduction. Org Process Res Dev. Industrial potential of organic solvent tolerant bacteria. Biotechnol Prog. Cloning of organic solvent tolerance gene ostA that determines n-hexane tolerance level in Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol. J Environ Health Sci Eng. Simultaneous production of alkaline lipase and protease by antibiotic and heavy metal tolerant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

J Basic Microbiol. Protein phylogenies and signature sequences: a reappraisal of evolutionary relationships among archaebacteria, eubacteria, and eukaryotes. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. Conserved signature indels and signature proteins as novel tools for understanding microbial phylogeny and systematics: identification of molecular signatures that are specific for the phytopathogenic genera Dickeya, Pectobacterium and Brenneria.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. Production, optimization, and characterization of organic solvent tolerant cellulases from a lignocellulosic waste-degrading actinobacterium, Promicromonospora sp. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. Use of Congo red-polysaccharide interactions in enumeration and characterization of cellulolytic bacteria from the bovine rumen. Cr VI reduction by Enterobacter sp. DU17 isolated from the tannery waste dump site and characterization of the bacterium and the Cr VI reductase.

Int Biodeterior Biodegrad. Rapid determination of 16S ribosomal RNA sequences for phylogenetic analyses. Introducing EzTaxon-e: a prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene sequence database with phylotypes that represent uncultured species. A simple method for estimating evolutionary rate of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences. J Mol Evol. Mol Biol Evol. Solvent tolerant marine bacterium Bacillus aquimaris secreting organic solvent stable alkaline cellulase. Optimization of cultural condition and synergistic effect of lactose with carboxymethyl cellulose on cellulase production by Bacillus sp.

Adv Microbiol. Characterization of cellulase-producing bacteria from the digestive tract of tilapia, Oreochromis mossambica Peters and grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella Valenciennes.

Background

Aquac Res. Enhanced carboxymethylcellulase production by a newly isolated marine bacterium Cellulophaga lytica LBH, using wheat bran. J Microbiol Biotechnol. Isolation of cellulose-hydrolytic bacteria and applications of the cellulolytic enzymes for biohydrogen production. Enzyme Microb Technol. Purification and biochemical characterization of a novel thermo-stable carboxymethyl cellulase from Azorean isolate Bacillus mycoides SC. Industrial waste based compost as a source of novel cellulolytic strains and enzymes.

Use of dinitrosalicylic acid reagent for determination of reducing sugar. Anal Chem. Method for measuring cellulase activities. Methods in Enzymology: Cellulose and Hemicellulose. New York: Academic Press; — Direct amplification of new cellulase genes from woodland soil purified DNA. Mol Biol Rep. Cloning of a Cellulase gene from indigenous strain of Bacillus species. Pak J Life Soc Sci. UniProt: a hub for protein information. Nucleic Acids Res. Evolutionary divergence and convergence in proteins.

Evolving Genes and Proteins. The rapid generation of mutation data matrices from protein sequences. Comput Appl Biosci. Isolation and identification of cellulolytic bacteria from the gut of Holotrichia parallela larvae Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae. Int J Mol Sci. Isolation, screening, and optimization of the fermentation conditions of highly cellulolytic bacteria from the hindgut of Holotrichia parallela larvae Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae.

Characterization and identification of cellulolytic bacteria from gut of worker Macrotermes gilvus. Multifarious activities of cellulose degrading bacteria from Koala Phascolarctos cinereus faeces. J Anim Sci Technol. Population, diversity and characteristics of cellulolytic microorganisms from the Indo-Burma Biodiversity hotspot.

Molecular mechanisms of ceftazidime resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from canine and human infections. Vet Med. The elucidation of mechanisms of ceftazidime resistance among clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using genomic data. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. Microorganisms and heavy metal toxicity. Microb Ecol. Exploiting the genetic and biochemical capacities of bacteria for the remediation of heavy metal pollution.

Hexavalent chromium reduction by Bacillus sp. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. Metal tolerance and biosorption capacity of Bacillus circulans strain EB1. Res Microbiol. J Environ Manag. A newly isolated organic solvent tolerant Bacillus sphaericus y producing organic solvent-stable lipase. Biochem Eng J. Isolation of an organic solvent-tolerant bacterium Bacillus licheniformis PAL05 that is able to secrete solvent-stable lipase.

Biotechnol Appl Biochem. A novel organic solvent-stable alkaline protease from organic solvent-tolerant Bacillus licheniformis YP1A. J Mol Catal B: Enzym. Stability studies of protease from Bacillus cereus BG1. Afr J Biotechnol. High-yield cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei ZU on corn cob residue. Bioresour Technol. Optimization of cellulase production by Penicillium occitanis. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. Volatile components of a yeast extract composition. J Food Sci. Minor element composition of yeast extract.

J Bacteriol. Brewer's spent grain and corn steep liquor as substrates for cellulolytic enzymes production by Streptomyces malaysiensis. Lett Appl Microbiol. Streptomyces drozdowiczii cellulase production using agro-industrial by-products and its potential use in the detergent and textile industries. Cellulase production on high levels of cellulose and corn steep liquor.

Zentralbl Mikrobiol. The biological degradation of cellulose. Studies on cellulase production by a Bacillus subtilis. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. Catabolite repression of polygalacturonase, pectin lyase, and cellulase synthesis in Penicillium expansum. Microbial cellulose utilization: fundamentals and biotechnology. Enhanced cellulase production from Bacillus subtilis by optimizing physical parameters for bioethanol production. ISRN Biotechnol. Characterization of extracellular cellulose-degrading enzymes from Bacillus thuringiensis strains.

Optimization of carboxymethylcellulase production from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SS Isolation, production, purification and characterization of an organic-solvent-thermostable alkalophilic cellulase from Bacillus vallismortis RG BMC Biotechnol. Production of bacterial endoglucanase from pretreated oil palm empty fruit bunch by Bacillus pumilus EB3. J Biosci Bioeng. Animal cellulases with a focus on aquatic invertebrates. Fish Sci. Evolutionary relationships and taxa-specific conserved signature indels among cellulases of Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. J Comput Biol. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivative License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium provided the original work is properly cited and the work is not changed in any way.

Services on Demand Journal. Fungal and Bacterial Physiology Research Paper Inducible cellulase production from an organic solvent tolerant Bacillus sp. Abstract Bacteria are important sources of cellulases with various industrial and biotechnological applications. Introduction Glycoside hydrolases or glycosidases are enzymes that hydrolyze O-, N- and S-linked glycosides, which have diverse industrial applications. Materials and methods Chemicals Chemical reagents of analytical grade were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich St. Isolation of cellulolytic bacterium Soil sample was collected in sterile vials from a cattle shed located in Sonia Vihar, New Delhi - Characterization and phylogeny of the cellulolytic isolate Morphological, physiological and biochemical characters for the isolate SV1 were studied.

Antibiotic susceptibility pattern The susceptibility of the isolate SV1 to various antibiotics was tested using the standard disc diffusion method. Estimation of inducible nature of cellulase synthesis Inducible nature of cellulase synthesis was investigated in medium VII initial pH 7. Various nutritional factors effecting bacterial growth and cellulase production Effects of different organic nitrogen casein hydrolysate broth, corn steep solid, beef extract, tryptone, peptone, glycine and bacto casamino acids sources at 0.

Actinobacteria: Application In Bioremediation And Production Of Industrial Enzymes

Results Cellulolytic bacterial characterization and phylogenetic analysis The isolated strain SV1 showed a very high cellulolytic index CI of 7. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern and tolerances to heavy metals and organic solvents Strain SV1 was susceptible to all the antibiotics tested and showed an intermediate resistance against ceftazidime Supplementary Table 1. Organic solvent Log P ow a Growth O. Estimation of different media and physiological parameters on growth and cellulase production The varied effects of different media on bacterial growth and cellulase production are shown in Supplementary Fig.

Inducible nature of cellulase synthesis Cellulase production was higher in presence of CMC than in its absence 3. Discussion In the present study, a cellulase producing bacterium was isolated from soil collected from a cattle shed area. Conclusion A cellulolytic and non-hemolytic soil bacterium, Bacillus sp. Acknowledgements Fellowships from C. Appendix A Supplementary data Supplementary data associated with this article can be found, in the online version, at doi Received: October 16, ; Accepted: May 6, Conflicts of interest The authors declare no conflicts of interest.